The story of trams is one of technological progress leading directly to increased social mobility.
The latter is an interesting phrase, loved by politicians and TV presenters but with as many definitions as people who use it.
(20) Glass slides (often more than one) with hand drawn images are the standard aesthetic for these slides.
They are then usually mounted in rectangular wooden frames approx.
Christiaan Huygens is generally considered the “official” inventor of the magic lantern.
Though Huygens is credited with the invention of the magic lantern, Thomas Walgensten was the first to use the lanterns as a commercial product in the 1660s.
Chromotrope The animation above is from a 5" x 2-1/4" x 3/16" (125mm x 56mm x 5mm) wood framed Chromotrope lantern slide.
Animation is accomplished by turning a small crank extending to the right.
Images painted on glass instead of etchings on mirrors. An artificial light source was used instead of the reflection of sunlight.4 x 7 inches with a 3 inch circular opening for the image.(Musser 30) The various mechanisms attached to the images are described in the Object Narrative section.I have in my archive a collection of almost one hundred glass, magic lantern, projection slides of Burnley and its trams, dating from the 1880s to the 1950s.I bought some of them, many years ago, from the son of a Burnley tram driver, along with other momentoes of his time with the ‘Corporation’.In this case though, trams really did change social mobility.The introduction of cheap, efficient, public transport enabled people to live further away from their work, shops and places of entertainment and to move out of town centres where the factories were located, to the outskirts where life was greener and healthier.Magic lanterns of the style shown here were made as early as the 18th century and references to such devices can be found even earlier. It can project a small image about 2 feet by 2 feet (1.5m x 1.5m).The little 'nursery' magic lantern is powered by a tiny kerosene lamp and was made in Germany by E. Many thanks to John-Henry Collinson for telling me about the nursery lantern.This type of transfer slide was produced in the many thousands over a period from the mid-1800s to the 1920s or so, and shipped all over the world. By the difficult term Decalcomania we describe the technique of transferring pictures from specially prepared paper to surfaces such as glass, china, pottery etc.In the world of magic lanterns we specifically mean the application of this process while making a lantern slide by transferring an image to a square or oblong piece of glass.